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Tuesday, 7 June 2016

Adolescent Pruning Science Education

Every human experience certain phases in his life, such as in infancy, children phase, the phase of adolescence, adult phase, and the phase of the elderly. However, the frequent search for meaning of life is in phase teenagers. At one period in the developmental period that is the focus of interest to be studied are teenagers. Because at this time, individual adolescents experience a period of adjustment to the environment that is around, especially with the order of norms, values, customs, and ethics in society. Adolescence is a time of connecting or transition between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence including a wonderful time and sometimes we hear the slogan "The beauty of Adolescence", but do not forget this period was also the period that determines, in which many children undergo physical and psychological changes.

At the time of this development, teenagers began demanding to be given the opportunity express their own opinions, likes trigger feelings, if deemed necessary teens are rebelling because he feels that he is not a child anymore, and why has not recognized his maturity to cause anxiety in itself, is unsettled the state of the environment. Usually teens have admired, but the attitude is not always negative. Teens are also very interested in the peer group, seeking attention in their environment, emotions are overwhelming, as well as physical growth experienced rapid change. On the other hand, a teenager's life is very complex with a wide range of creativity and willingness to try everything in the vicinity, both in the field of socially and intellectually. By him that needed a container that talent, enthusiasm and the desire of achievement can be realized.
Adolescent Pruning Science Education
Adolescent Pruning Science Education
Education is a conscious effort and performed by adults (educators) with a planned, programmed and controlled to prepare individuals through the guidance of teaching or training activities for its role in the future. With that education, juvenile individuals actualize its potential through tools or media education to students (teenagers) were able to find its own activities as well as be able to experience the positive changes in her personality aspects concerning domain tri namely, changes in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.

A. Functions In Education System

Some research suggests the emphasis on the role of schools that develop interpersonal teenagers in achieving pegetahuan, skills, and cultural inheritance. Based on the research it appears that there is a first-rate school in the village were set 100 to 2000 students. Coleman (1961) found that the school has not been completed or form a certain popularity. An example, only 31% of female students into groups of students sought special but 45% considering most sought so athletes, and generally 28% of men as special students considering their shortcomings, but 72% deficiency called back to the usual. Smilarly Snyder (1972) found that generally the junior high school the most important criteria to select between men and women to give respect and status that brings quality individuals. The next most important, have the material, social activities, and sports. School achievement at the quality and ranking them.

In addition, Johnston and Bachman (1976) in a study on a sample of 2100 states the possibility of school teachers found that both teachers and learners almost everything Google, where were the actual function of secondary school. Group-group believes that sport has given place and emphasis on their school. Its function is more or less provide the skills and focuses on cultural inheritance, norms and values.

However data reported by Johnston and Bachman and other researchers there are indications that most basic of functions last. Frieson (1968) examined about 15,000 students in 19 schools in Canada. He found that students who looked athletic and popular and more important to question the success of the function. But they believe an outstanding school more important function for future success than others. Other additional look to acquire the skills for the future and the role of cultural displacement, the data from Johnston and Bachman (1976) supports the main functions and make the school emphasizes the future as hopeless teenager the last. In addition to sports, teachers and students agreed that increased motivation and desire to learn is the most common functions rather than the issue of school achievement as a top priority.

Some public schools in the sample, there is a big obstacle in acquiring the skills and functions of the cultural inheritance. Hadden (1969) noted that 45% of students who learn to see the school as a symbol of hope or the destruction of the world ", while 25% Rewer record of what they have learned ignorance, failure and loss of identity. The functions that further add to the individual and interpersonal pressures. Only 2/3 of the sample agreed that "the school has changed the whole outlook on my own".

It seems that all the states that recognized the role of education of students is the most important aspect of education, however, data from a sample of a country, the top students showed 75% believe that the school is able to provide a job privileges on the learner.

Schools perform some functions, the paradigm of the functions of education has been thought by many experts adolescent development. Montemayor and Svajian Ausubel (1977) view that the basis of education is a tool to capture and transmit its own culture and able to provide or add insight about life. School is also one way to move and get the basics of science. Mecandless (1970) revealed that the school should function to provide the skills and pass on cultural knowledge and values. However he believes schools at least have a general function as an actualization. Mecandless sure that the education system creates a background where teens can be happy and challenged. School is a place or a private agency to develop optimally, maximize individual identity and the individual is able to serve the community.

At least there are various school functions on a "personal" and "interpersonal" we know it. Ausubel (1977) in which the school is a place that describes a context of social interaction and develop together. Although teens are given the freedom of the parents. School for teens is an opportunity to find the status or social identity. Perhaps we agree with the school pupils who are able to demonstrate achievement beyond curriculum by putting in special classes or extracurricular activities or also the organization's activities in school, such as sports clubs. Education and training obtained outside the school more should be given to her social status in the future.

B. Characteristics of Education During Adolescence

The learning process will be managed in accordance with our interests and the need for an individual. Ideals about the kind of work in the future is an important factor that affects the interests and the need for young people to learn. By him, consciously teens already know that in order to achieve the desirable type of work that requires specific knowledge and skills advice that should be owned. This is what educating adolescents determine the choice of the kind of education that shall be followed.

Adolescents at the age of 13-14 years or at the age of early adolescence (pre-adolescence) where levels of education are at Junior High School (JSS, they began to recognize the new system in the school. For example, the introduction to the many teachers who have a wide range of properties and personality. this suggests an ability to adapt to diverse situations. Similarly, children begin to recognize the various subjects that should be studied with various characteristics. in the junior secondary majors no selection problems, but for the senior secondary level is when children aged about 15-18 year, the selection of the department have also been introduced.

In addition to the introduction of the education system, the young people also have a colleague who is getting luaslingkungannya and he started to get to know other children with various backgrounds family circumstances. In other words, teenagers know and have a new society is a society of school or peers. Thus, they have three educational environment that pattern and characteristics are different. Teens have three spheres of life, that all three have a different complexion as well as individual responsibility in providing education. Given that, then every teenager in the position of a pluralistic education, they are in the lives of family education, community education life, and the life that followed school education. Which of the respective spheres of life that education is not always the same basis and purpose. Therefore, teenagers as "challenged" to be able to overcome the problems of diversity and has placed itself properly and harmoniously.

1. Environmental Education in Family

Family is the first environment and primary education for children and adolescents. Family education more emphasis on the moral or the formation of personality than education to master science. Basic and objectives of education are indiviual family suite with a view of life in each family, even nationally for the families of the nation Indonesia has the same base, namely Pancasila. There are families in educating their children based on the principles of religion and emphasizing the educational process on religious education with the aim to make the children become devout and always piety and faith in God the almighty One. There is also a family basis and objectives of education oriented to the social and economic life of society with the aim to make the children become productive and useful in society.

Children and adolescents in the family serves as the students and parents as educators. Broadly speaking patterns in organizing family education can be grouped into three sections, namely; authoritarian education, democratic education, and liberal education. In connection with that, education is patterned authoritarian give the impression where children always have to follow what has been outlined by his parents, being in education patterned liberal, children are more likely to be given freedom by their parents to set goals and ideals , From some of the educational pattern, it is known that most families in Indonesia to follow the suit of a democratic education. Furthermore, the meaning of a democratic education was by Ki Hadjar Dewantara it is stated that education should be sung tulada ngarsa ing, ing middle Mangun intention, tut wuri Handayani, which means: on the front give an example, in the middle of the guide, and in the back encouragingly.

2. Environmental Education in the Community

society is the natural environment both known children. Teenagers have a lot to know the characteristics of people with different norms and diversity. The condition is highly diverse society, certainly many things that must be observed and followed by members of the public, and thus the teens need to understand it. In connection with that, it is not uncommon teenagers have our differences with the parents, so that norms and adolescent behavior considered incompatible with prevailing norms of society. This of course will have an impact on the formation of private juvenile. These differences can encourage the youth to form peer groups that have a common view.

Beyond that in the community there are characters who have a strong influence on the pattern of community life. However, it is sometimes not able to affect the lives of adolescents, teenagers consequently occasionally perform actions that are not in accordance with the provisions of the public, or to the young deliberately evade the rules and regulations of society.

In carrying out the functions of education, many people establish or establish groups or community-community or courses that are intentionally provided to adolescents in an effort to prepare for life in the future. The courses in question are generally oriented to the world of work. However, many group activities or courses that built these communities are less attracted the attention of adolescents; by teens what was provided was judged incompatible with the times. Such conditions many teenagers thought provoking response to that is not necessarily positive. Many groups of teenagers who imagines his future bleak and they formed a group named "Madesu".

3. Environment Education in School

School is an artificial environment that is deliberately created to foster children toward specific goals, in particular to provide the ability and skill as a provision for later life. For teenagers who attended school track education is primary education and secondary education. In the eyes of teenage school is seen as an institution that had an impact on the formation of concepts relating to their fate in the future. They realized that if the achievements or results achieved in the school is good, then it will open up the possibility of life in the future be brighter, but otherwise if his achievements are less good, then it can result in the darkness of their future. Failure of school for teens is seen as the beginning of the failure of his life. Thus, the school is seen affecting many lives. Therefore, teenagers have thought of absolutely in selecting and getting the school is expected to provide a good opportunity for him in the future. This view is based on various factors, such as economic, social, and self-esteem (status in the society). However, in determining the choice of school is still a lot of intervention by parents who are too big. It was often brought as a result of failure in school education because children are not forced to follow the lessons in accordance with the choice and interest.

Education, both school track and outdoor track school, provides various types of programs possibly relevant to the needs of the type of labor in society. To set the type of education and selection of desirable job many factors to be considered include:
  1. Factors predictive of the future.
  2. Factors that describe the achievements of talents and interests of teenagers.
  3. Factors that life can be observed from the diversity of conditions of employment in the community.
  4. Competitiveness of each individual.

C. Factors Affecting the Development of Education In Adolescence

a. Socioeconomic Factors

Socio-economic conditions determine many educational and career development of the child's life. Social conditions that describe the status of the parents is a factor that is "seen" by the child to determine the choice of school and work. Indirectly the success of the parents is a "burden" for the child, so that in determining the choice of education implied to participate retain parenthood. In addition, parents explicitly expressed hope his life is reflected in the encouragement to choose the type of school or education that is desired by parents.

Economic factors include the ability of parents and the economic condition of the state (public). The first is the main condition because of the ability of parents to finance their child's education. Many children have high intellectual ability can not enjoy a good education due to the limited economic resources of their parents.

b. Environmental factor

The influence of environmental factors include three types. First, the environmental community life, such as the community environment of industry, agriculture, or trading environment. Also known academic communities or the environment in which members of the community in general, educated or uneducated. Such a life environment will shape the attitudes of children in determining the pattern of life which in turn will influence the thinking of teenagers in deciding the type of education and career desirable.

Second, domestic life environment in which the school is environmental conditions that directly affect the lives of education and career goals teenagers. Educational institution or school of good quality, which maintains high enough discipline will greatly affect the formation of attitudes and behavior of children educational life and patterns of thought in the face of a career.

Third, peer environment. Peer association that will directly affect the lives of each adolescent education. Peer environment will provide opportunities for young people (male or female) to be more mature. In the peer group a girl the opportunity to be a woman and a virgin to become a man and learn to be independent in accordance with nature.

c. Factors Worldview

View of life formed part of the environment. Embodiment view of life seen in the establishment of a person, especially in the stated ideals of life for adolescents. In choosing an educational institution, an individual is influenced by the underlying condition of the family. Teens who come from poor families, generally aspire to later become affluent people (rich), and thus in choosing the type of education oriented to the kind of education that can bring a lot of money, for example; medicine, economics, and engineering experts.

D. Implications tasks Adolescent Development in the Implementation of Education

Shows the number of life factors that are in the neighborhood teens, then the rationale for organizing education should also pay attention to these factors. Even in education is recognized that it is impossible to meet the demands and expectations of all the factors that apply. In that regard, then there are several implications of adolescent development tasks in education that include;

a. Education prevailing in Indonesia, both education held in school or out of school, are generally held in the classical form. Implementation of classical education is meant to impose the same all educational actions to all teenagers who are members in the classroom, even if each of them is very different. Recognition of the ability of each person who was becoming less diverse. Therefore, that should get attention in the provision of education was the properties and general needs teenagers, such as recognition of his ability, want to gain the confidence, the freedom, and the like.

b. Some effort needs to be done in education in relation to the interests and abilities of teenagers attributed to the ideals of life include:
  • Guidance Career in an effort to steer students to determine the choice of the type of education and type of work according to his ability.
  • Provide Practical exercises oriented toward students with the condition (demand) environment.
  • Penyusunan A comprehensive curriculum to develop a local curriculum.

c. Success in choosing spouses to found a family are determined by experience and completion of developmental tasks ever before. To develop a model of the ideal family it is necessary to:
  • Guidance About how to teach social etiquette through character education and family education.
  • Guidance Students to understand the norms both within the family, school, and in society. For this purpose the necessary referrals for emotional freedom from parents.

d. Education about the value of life to introduce norms of social life needs to be done. In this case the necessary practical education through youth organizations, meetings with parents on a periodic basis, and strengthening religious education both inside and outside the school.


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